The answer is a name, or part of it, with Arabic origins.
As Islam spread from the Arabian peninsula into new territories many of its converts adopted names that reflected the new religion and the change it brought to their culture. So before too long there were people with Arabic names from Senegal in the West to Indonesia in the East. This did not solely happen in the Muslim world by any means; witness the dominance of Spanish or Portuguese names in the Philippines, East Timor, Latin America and parts of Africa, which accompanied the spread of Catholicism in the colonial era.
But the spread of Arabic names did not necessarily annihilate the traditional names of those Islamizing nations. In many cases, the names evolved to fit each local culture, while still bearing the hallmarks of their Arabic origins.
Not all countries adopted Arabic names with the same zeal, of course. Malaysia and Indonesia make for an interesting comparison. Although the two countries are culturally almost identical, Islam became a much more fundamental part of the Malay identity than it did for Indonesians. This is reflected in Malay names, which are identifiably Muslim, almost without exception. By contrast, many Indonesians adopted Arabic names, but many did not, or combine an Arabic surname with an Indonesian given name, or vice versa. Indonesia's last four Presidents are a case in point. Abdurrahman Wahid and Yusuf Habibie have names that would be quite at home in the Middle East, whereas Megawati Sukarnoputri and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, despite being Muslims, have names that are purely Indonesian.
So today the Muslim world has a diverse range of names which are identifiably Islamic, yet have adapted to the cultures that embraced them. Let's investigate the way these names have evolved.
While some of the most common Muslim names are derived from the Arabic language (and particularly from the 99 Names of Allah), many are descended from the Arabs' common links with early Jewish and Christian communities. Here are some examples:
Yahya (Yohanna / John)
COMMON VARIATIONS OF SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION
Time, distance, and the vagaries of converting Arabic sounds into Roman script have meant that many Muslim names have a number of variations and derivations even within the Middle East. For example:
Muhammad, Machmoud, Mehmet (Turkish), Achmed
Abdul, Abdullah, Abdallah, Abdel, Abd, Abida
Uthman, Usman, Osman (Persian/Turkish)
Rahim, Rahman, Rehman, Abdurrachman
Nasri, Nasr, Nasir, Nasser, Nazir, Nazeer
Said, Saeed, Sayid, Syed, Sayeed, Zaid